Athanasius Kircher. Although the editorial intro to The Picture Magazine says that copyrights were honoured, it doesn't always credit the origin, and in this case the images track to the Scientific American Supplement, No. 488, May 9, 1885, which is on Project Gutenberg (E-text #27662).
Dinocrates planning a whole mountain city modelled on a colossus of Alexander the Great, and continues ...
In the seventeenth century, Father Kircher conceived the idea of taking up Dinocrates' plan upon a small scale, and composed the landscape shown in Fig. 1. The drawing remained engraved for a long time upon a marble tablet set into the wall of Cardinal Montalte's garden at Rome. Later on, artists improved and varied this project, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3.... and the embellishment is clear when the images are compared with Kircher's original from his 1645-6 Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae (The Great Art of Light and Shadow), page 703.
I've seen many such artworks over the years; the anthropomorphic landscape (almost invariably based on a bearded man) was a very enduring meme among late mediaeval and Renaissiance artists, with a lot of homage/plagiarism by the look of it. So here's a compendium, by no means exhaustive. I admit I'm very doubtful of a lot of the attributions, especially on commercial poster sites. For example, some of the works by Joos de Momper just labelled as "Anthropomorphic landscape" are the cycle of four allegorical paintings The Four Seasons.
|Anthropomorphic landscape, Claude Fortier, c. 1805 ... apparently|
This is evidently the second Scientific American image, though I only find one citation.
|An Anthropomorphic Landscape With The Profile Of A Man's Head, (after) Johann Christian Vollerdt|
|An anthropomorphic landscape, (after) Giuseppe Arcimboldo|
|A Hilly Landscape with an anthropomorphic design, Flemish School, early 17th Century|
|Anthropomorphic Landscape, Matthäus Merian, the elder (Swiss, 1593-1650), Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art |
|Anthropomorphic Landscape, Matthäus Merian, the younger, 1650|
|Anthropomorphic Landscape, early 17th century, Joost de Momper (1564-1635)|
|"Anthropomorphic Landscape", Joos De Momper (actually Winter)|
|"Anthropomorphic Landscape 2", Joos De Momper (actually Summer)|
|Anthropomorphic Landscape, Matthäus Merian der Jüngere, c.1650|
|Landscape shaped like a face, Wenceslaus Hollar (1607–1677)|
|Rocky landscape with ruins, forming the profile of a man's face, c.1650, Herman Saftleven (1609–1685)|
|Das Picnic: Vexierbild / Picture Puzzle Advertisement for Dr. August Koenig's Hamburger Tropfen|
|Anthropomorphic Landscape, Flemish School, 17th century,|
sold at Christies, 23 Jan 2004
|Asia (Anthropomorphic Landscape), German School, 18th century|
|Anthropomorphic Landscape, German School, 18th century|
|This is similar to the Christies one above, but I've no identification. Any ideas?|
The genre is by no means extinct. A popular modern example is the "face" image of Machu Picchu. Although it's very clearly modified, a lot of people seem to take it as real. I can't remember the details at this instant, but I'm pretty sure it was created a few years back for an advert in one of the weekend newspaper colour supplements. Does anyone else remember it?